Friday, July 17, 2020
Career Counseling What is It and How Can I Use it for Career Progression Career progression is the aim for most workers, but career development is not something most of us think of regularly. But without proper understanding of what we want from our careers and how we can achieve our goals quicker, we can quickly end up dissatisfied with our jobs.Career counseling is a process that can help you with your career progression. © Shutterstock | Andrey_PopovIn this guide, we will examine what career counseling entails and discover whom to look for if you want to consider trying it. Weâll also discuss who can benefit from the practice and how, before looking closer at how career counseling can be used for career progression.WHAT IS THE DEFINITION OF CAREER COUNSELLING?Career counseling refers to mentoring or coaching on issues, which relate to a personâs career. It generally helps individuals make the right choices in terms of career paths, career development and career change. The overall aim of career counseling is to help the individual maximize the successes theyâll have on their chosen career path.Perhaps one of the simplest ways to understand the essence of career counseling is by examining what it isnât about. Career counseling is not a process where the person is told what career they should pursue in terms of simply stating the job the person should apply for or the course they should enroll in. More importantly, career counselors wonât provide you with a job.The focus of career counseling is to provide the tools for you to understand your passion or the so-called âtrue callingâ. While it will provide you better awareness of the ways you can improve your job search and help you apply for the right roles regarding your career goals, experiencing career counseling wonât guarantee you with a job.[slideshare id=29544234doc=careerdevelopmenttheory-131228135202-phpapp01w=640h=330]WHO PROVIDES CAREER COUNSELLING?There are a number of options when it comes to receiving career counseling. It can be provided by a therapist, a life coach, or a voluntary business coach. A professional career coach is someone with expertise and academic qualifications in career development theory, counseling techniques, and in administrative and interpretative assessment. In addition, career coach has to have a vast understanding of career information resources.Career counselors typically work in schools and universities. If you are studying, your institutionâs website and Career Department are likely to have more information about career counselors.But the popularity of career counseling has also meant many larger organizations now have in-house counselors. Itâs a good idea to check with the HR department if you are considering a meeting with a counselor.Furthermore, you can also find private career consultants. You could simply use Google to find a career coach near you. You can type in âcareer counselor in [your city]â and you should be able to receive plenty of results.You can also try the professional associations of your countryâs career counselors. For example, in the US this would mean checking out the National Career Development Association (NCDA).Watch this funny career counseling session with Monty Python. WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM CAREER COUNSELLING?According to some studies, around 70% of Americans are unhappy at work. Itâs therefore quite evident most people would benefit from better career planning. Career development is a lifelong process and most people find themselves questioning their career choices later on.Job satisfaction isnât something to take lightly. It can lead to stress, which can hinder your health and relationships with other people. It isnât just the feeling of being unhappy at work. A 2014 study in the US showed only a little over 20% of workers are happy with promotion prospects and fewer than 40% were happy with their current compensation.Therefore, whether you are just starting out, in the middle of your career or indeed coming to the end of your career, you can benefit from career counseling, as it can help you gain focus and find the direction you want to steer your career.Career counseling is especially beneficial if youâve had some of the below thoughts cross your mind:âI donât know what to do with my lifeââIâm not sure which course to choose or which job offer to takeââI am cert ain of what I want to do, but I have no idea how to achieve my career goalââI donât know how to best use my current skillsetââI didnât get the university place or job I wantedââI want a career with good financial rewards/job security/challenging rolesââIâm not sure whether to move somewhere else in order to find workâA career counselor can help you answer the above questions and find a route to better career satisfaction. The important point to keep in mind is that career counseling isnât only beneficial when you want to find a new job or get on to the career ladder.The tools you get from a career counselor can help you feel more satisfied in the current job, for instance, through learning how to improve your position either by earning a promotion or a raise.For people with a high interest in career counseling, this compendium is very helpful.[slideshare id=45790496doc=gumwos5tpwyhoodbc6lc-signature-d7e26b028bc99f1930f6387558b77ecfdefec07f182af218380d8ac881 a37021-poli-150313043709-conversion-gate01type=dw=640h=330]WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF SEEING A CAREER COUNSELLOR?As the above highlighted, career counseling can help people in different stages of their careers.The common advantages you can enjoy with career counseling are:Identifying the different options and choices available for you in terms of your career.Helping you clarify your career goals in order for you to achieve more in your career.Supporting you during the job search through the provision of resources and feedback.Ensuring you obtain a better understanding of your individual strengths and weaknesses.Providing you with educational support and guidance, whether you are starting your studies or wanting to improve your current skills.Letâs examine the above benefits through case studies. Both of the below examples are available in more detail on the Skill Scan website.The first case study looked at Claire, who is at the start of her career. She had completed her studies at university, with a degree in Business Administration and Conservation Studies, but had no clue what to do. Through her visit to a career counselor, she learned more about her skills and values.The different tests and discussions helped her reveal an interest towards organizational and managerial positions. She began focusing on applying for these types of positions in PR and landed a job quickly.In Claireâs case, the career counseling helped identify the kind of jobs she would most like to perform, as well as the ones suited for her specific talents. She identified different options and created a path towards a career she liked.The second case study focused on Andrew, who was transitioning from one job to another. He had been laid off from a law firm and he wanted to re-evaluate the direction his career was heading.Andrewâs problem was that he hadnât previously planned a career in law, but had just taken on the opportunity as a young man. Yet, he was worried about the difficu lties in changing a career. Through the assessment and discussion with a career counselor, Andrew noticed he was drawn to being creative and solving problems. He considered a number of different career paths that would fit his skills and values, and eventually went on to complete a Financial Planning certificate.In Andrewâs case, the career counseling helped him understand what his actual interest are and the different options he has available, without it causing him financial problems. He learned about different study routes and options to continue in the legal field, while gaining skills in another subject.The two examples highlighted the benefits of career counseling in different situations. The practice can empower you to better understand your own preferences, but also receive real life tips on how to achieve those goals.In addition to the above, career counseling can also provide specific social and economic benefits. A 2003 report titled, The Educational, Social and Economi c Value of Informed and Considered Career Decisions, found career counseling being able to provide benefits such as:Increase your job satisfaction. You can learn strategies that can help you solve issues at your current position, such as negotiating a promotion. On the other hand, you can simply find your true calling, ensuring you arenât stuck in a career you donât like.Lower work-related stress and depression. Unhappiness at work has been shown to lower your ability to make healthier life choices. Thus, you can suffer from more stress and even depression. By ensuring youâre happy at work, you can reduce these harmful effects.Shorten your unemployment periods. Youâll receive tools for a more effective job search and networking, which can ensure you arenât unemployed for long.HOW CAN CAREER COUNSELLING HELP WITH JOB PROGRESSION?To fully comprehend the ways career counseling can boost your job progression, you should understand the process behind it. All career counseling f ocuses on similar tactics, although the methods they use might vary slightly.Identifying your strengths and skillsFirst, a career counselor typically starts by helping you define the strengths and weaknesses you have in terms of personality. This is often done through both self-assessment and different personality tests.There are a number of different personality tests and different counselors might use different assessment methods. One of the major analysis options used for career analysis purposes is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test.This test looks at the four personality dichotomies: extraversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The test will show the traits that are the most dominant in you, all of which can be used to understand the kind of roles most suited for your personality.Watch the below to find out more about Myers-Briggs method: Furthermore, the counselor will also help you examine your skill set. This can involve skill-bas ed tests, such as an IQ test. The aim is not to find out how smart you are, but rather where your strengths lie. In addition, your skills are also analyzed through the education you have and the work or other experience youâve gained.The above will then be used to better understand the roles and positions, most suited for you and your career. This can help you identify the direction you want to take if you are starting out or re-direct your career path to a different direction.The more understanding you have about your own capabilities and values, the more able you are to look for the roles that you want and which help you progress.For instance, you might work in the service industry and through the above assessment realize your true strength lies in the sales sector. This can help you focus on searching for sales in the service industry, rather than customer service aspect of the industry, for example.Examining factors which influence career developmentThe second point that helps your career progression is the focus on factors influencing your current career development. The counselor will help you identify the different issues that can have an impact on your career progression. These include:Personal factors â" If you have a family to support, career counselor will help identify career goals with you, which align with your familyâs needs. For instance, if you canât afford to stop working while changing careers, the counselor can help identify ways to obtain skills while working.Value-based factors â" These include not only things you want from your job, but also specific values that might influence your job satisfaction. For example, you might want to find a role that focuses on social justice.Educational factors â" What are the skills you have and how can you continue to learn more about your chosen industry? Career counselor will help map out the educational landscape, both in terms of the past and the future.Ability-based factors â" Youâll als o examine the ability-based things influencing your career progression. This is a combination of examining your experience and finding different ways to increase the experience. For example, internships might be a suitable option for you or you should consider pursuing your new career as a hobby first.Understanding how each of the above factors are influencing your career progression, both in terms of hindering it or boosting it, you can focus your efforts in strategies that work the best.For instance, you might notice your education is slowing down your chosen career progression and keeping you from promotions. With the help of a career counselor, you can start looking into ways to educate and train yourself further.Focusing on the right strategiesCareer counseling will also help you focus on the right strategies in terms of career progression. The assessment and tips provided by the counselor will help you understand how to land a job of your dreams and where to put your energies when it comes to re-focusing your career.Some of the strategies you can learn from a career counselor include:Networkingâ"Career counselor can help you understand how networking can help your career and teach you more about the best practices regarding the process.Use of social media â" Social mediaâs role in finding a job is growing and career counselors can help you understand how to take advantage of it. If you are wholly unaware of its use, you could even get help in creating profiles in platforms like LinkedIn.Finding training opportunities â" Career counseling can help you find resources for training your skills. If you are at university, you can discuss the different course options and any additional studies you should take. For workers, career counseling can help identify adult learning opportunities, both in full- and part-time education.Creating personal development goalsâ" Finally, youâll also learn strategies in terms of personal development. The enhanced awarene ss of your personality can help you improve the weaker aspect and learn more about using your best traits.Together with the career counselor, you are able to identify the resources you need in terms of career information, opportunity and development. Furthermore, you can better understand how to use these resources, which can guarantee you more access to better job opportunities.For instance, strategies, such as networking, can be crucial for guaranteeing faster career progression, as it connects you with influential people within the industries you are passionate about.As mentioned above, the strategies are not only useful for people looking to get on the career ladder or seeking a new direction with their career. Career counseling provides you more tools to ensure your current work situation improves. Training or better focus on personal development can give you the resources you need to seek for a promotion or ask for a salary increase. Career progression doesnât necessarily me an changing jobs, as simply improving your status or financial incentive, can ensure you go forward in your career.CONCLUSIONCareer counseling can be a highly beneficial practice in terms of career progression. The process isnât just for people at the start of their career. Whilst the process isnât about telling you what to do and landing a job on your plate, career counseling can help you better understand what you truly want from your career.In terms of career progression, career counseling guarantees you donât stall in your career development. It does this by helping you identify your ideal career goals and the routes you need to take to achieve them. Itâs also crucial for strengthening your abilities in order to march forward. It can do so either by improving your skills through training or by boosting your ability to use different resources and strategies to your advantage.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1411 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? According to Banks, J.A., Banks, McGee, C. A. (1989). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Defining the nature of organisational culture" essay for you Create order Culture is defined as values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one person from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artefacts, and behaviours in the same or in similar ways. Culture can also be defined as sharing of beliefs, values, behaviours and customs that the society will cope with and relates with one another which are transferred from one generation to generation through teaching and learning. Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to understand, but everyone knows it when they sense or observe it. For instance, the culture of a big organisation to maximise profit is different from government hospital to render services to the public which is quite different than that of a university or college which is to give quality education to students. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Atkinson defines organisational culture as the collection of traditions, values, policies and attitudes that constitutes a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organisation. Organisational culture is the way work is been performed whether it is acceptable or not acceptable and the behaviour or actions are encouraged or discouraged. The culture of organisation is linked to the personality of an individual. MODELS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE There are four models of organisational culture. They are: Power culture: Power culture is mostly found in small entrepreneurial organisations and it relies on trust, and personal communication for effectiveness. Control is exercised by selection of key individuals. It is a political organisation which decisions taking largely on balance of influence. They are few rules and procedures and little bureaucracy. Role culture: Role culture rest on the strength of strong organisation pillar. These are the specialist of the company. Such as Finance, Production, Administration, Marketing, Purchasing etc. Their roles or job description are more important than any individual in the organisation and their position is the main source of power. Task culture: Task culture bring right resources and people into the organisation. Person culture: Person culture exists when the employee think they are more superior or important than the organisation. CORPORATE CULTURE Organisations have set of values and goals that help them to achieve their aims and objectives. Corporate culture is described as collection of values, systems, beliefs, and processes that give the company its own special attitude. Every organisation has a corporate culture and standard that oversees the operation of the company. These standards can be in form of rules, procedures and policies that will determine the standard the organisation will operate. Organisation Profile of Avon UK Avon is the company for women, is a leading global beauty company, which generate more than $10 billion income annually. Avon is the first in the worlds that has largest direct selling. Avon markets to women in more than 100 countries through approximately 6.5 million active independent Avon Sales Representatives. Avons product line includes beauty products, as well as fashion and home products, and features such well-recognized brand names as Avon Colour, Anew, Skin-So-Soft, Advance Techniques, Avon Naturals, and mark. Learn more about Avon and its products. Its provide good and innovative quality products to customers at reasonable prices. Product lines include Avon make-up, Avon fragrance, ANEW skincare, Skin So Soft and Advance Techniques. Avon also sells different range of wellbeing products, jewellery, lingerie, accessories and gifts. More products carry the Avon name than any other brand in the world. Presently in the UK, Avon now reaches one in three women, with six m illion women seeing an Avon brochure every three weeks through Avon sales representatives. As the company for women, Avon is committed to supporting the causes that matter most to women breast cancer and domestic violence. Globally, Avon has raised over $800 million to date as the worlds largest supporter of womens causes. The mission of Avon is to be the company that best understands and satisfies the product, service and self-fulfilment needs of woman globally. The core five values of Avon are Trust, Respect, Belief, Humility and Integrity. The Characteristics of Corporate Culture and how it affects the achievement of Organisational Objectives of Avon UK. The corporate culture of Avon UK affect the organisational objectives in the sense that the corporate culture is totally different from their organisational objectives. Organisational objectives of Avon UK is to make profit at the end of the year and operation of the company must be effectively run. Part of the organisational culture of the company is to provide good and quality products and satisfy their customers. Moreover, the organisational culture is to lay standards which need to be followed by the employees. Also, organisation culture of Avon is to have direct sales and have a friendly relationship with their customers. The corporate culture of Avon UK are the responsibilities which the organisation is carried out which different from their organisational culture. These are the corporate culture which Avon is known for. Avon is known for providing breast cancer crusade for women. In the UK Avon has worked in partnership with charities including Breakthrough Breast Cancer, Crazy Hats and Macmillan Cancer Support. Avons activities have supported research, awareness raising, lobbying and care and support services. The Avon Breast Cancer Crusade was launched in the UK in 1992 to raise funds for and increase awareness of breast cancer. Today, the Crusade covers over 50 Avon countries across the world. Corporate culture affect the organisation culture in the sense that their major aim of going into the business has been diversify into another form. Due to this the organisation culture will be affected, the operation of the organisation will also be affected. Their efforts to developed and introduced the products to customers may be reduced due to the corporate culture activities. Ways by Which Models of Organisation Culture Can Be Used to achieve organisational Objectives. There are ways by which models of organisation culture can use to achieve organisational objectives. Four models will be used to achieve organisational objectives of Avon UK. Part of them is: Role culture: Avon UK has been using role culture model in achieving their organisational objectives. The goals and objectives of this organisation are set by their management. Also they focused on their customers and they are motivated during the period of their success. They provide excellent customer service to their customers. Organisation culture of Avon is to give free Brochures to their customers with no cost involve. They also give free delivery services to their sales representatives. They also give free samples of their new products to their customers for them to know what they are about to produce for their customers. All these role culture will help Avon to achieve organisational objectives because they will increase in sales and revenue. 4.1.2 The difference between Organisational and National Culture Organizational culture consists of an organization or social environment that support in making up initiatives and innovations. An organization with an organizational culture is more competitive and profitable. This type of organization is believed to be more rewarding and motivate people to work with. An Organization with an organizational culture helps individual and people to take more challenges for their own welfare. Features of organizational Culture Organizational culture is very useful for small businesses It is made up with creating ideas, innovations, Creativity. Organizational culture consists of independence, problem solving attitude, initiatives. Organizational culture is idea in an environment where there level or hierarchy of management is not active. Notional Culture The differences : National culture has more impact with their employees more than organisational culture. National cultures prefer to work for foreign companies rather the local organisation in their environment. The Corporate Cultural Profile in an organisation.( Avon UK) Corporate Culture consists of organization beliefs, values, procedures, in a large business environment. Corporate culture is also means the way things is being done in an environment. It consists of values, norms, and behaviors that become the natural way of doing things business. The top management has an important role to play in the organization. Part of corporate culture profile of Avon UK is to give direct sales or door to door marketing to their customers. They also give out free catalogues to customers to aid them in promoting their products. Also they give free delivery services to their customers. And also give free websites, return policy without any charges. 4.1.4 The impact of an organizations corporate culture in achieving its objectives.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Global and Regional Sustainability Over-population or Overconsumption: Which is the bigger of two vices to the progress of sustainability today? In the age, where the collective value of goods and commodities, the strength of economic markets and the accumulated wealth of individuals dictate the ease of life and the standards of living within society; it is imperative that we as a species reiterate to ourselves that the natural resources that enable us to fulfil all our basic needs, fashion all our desirable wants; and provisions the framework on which we build our cities, economies and daily lives remains limited and finite (McMahon, 2001 ; Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board, 2005). The finality of such finite resources demandsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Comparatively, over-consumption refers to the anthropocentric notion and practice of Ã¢â¬Å"ownershipÃ¢â¬ as well as indiscriminate use of natural resources and the environment for personal benefit and gain; without due regard and concern for the availability of such basic resources and natural services to remain viable in the future as well as for others who may h ave less access to them (Butler, 1994; Goodland amp; Daly, 1998). Over-consumption can be seen to be directly entrenched within the umbrellas of economic and personal wealth as the means to securing the availability of necessacities and resources (Fine et. Al, 1996). Brown amp; Cameron (2000) and Princen (1999) concur that the human-centred notion of priority through purchasability fosters the continued practice of unfair and unsustainable practices; whilst concurrently promoting wastage and disconnectedness between societies and the natural environment. The accelerated rate of natural resources utilised globally, noted against only the slightest marginal increase in economic development witnessed within the developing and underdeveloped regions; suggests that the majority of these key resources are being exploited for the further economic benefit of the developed regions by sheer means of their ability to purchase them from these less developed regions, thus limiting the availabili ty of these resources for
string(132) " and woman each come to marriage with unclear roles and vague expectations about their own and each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities\." Introduction Pastoral care and Counseling is one of the important ministries in the Church at any place in the world. Our churches are filled with people who experience crisis, lost, loneliness, anxiety, depression, divorced, and family problems. Pastors have a huge opportunity to help people just by listening and encouraging those in household of faith. We will write a custom essay sample on Pastoral Care and Counseling or any similar topic only for you Order Now In some cases it is just enough to listen and teach biblical principles of living but in the other cases there is the need to be specifically train people for a specialized ministry of counseling with deeper problems. In the context of my Country, Russia, I choose three issues which mostly need response in the churches. These issues are Premarital Counseling, Marriage Counseling and Crisis care and Counseling. Most of the times we do not feel comfortable to talk about these issues on the church but it do not mean that the problems do not exist. To have a healthy church these issues need to be addressed and pastors need to learn how to approach people because the people are not going to approach pastors first and ask for help. Part I: Premarital Counseling Psychologist Carl Rogers once gave a sobering perspective on marriage. Ã¢â¬Å"If 50-75 percent of Ford or General Motors cars completely fell apart within the early part of their lifetimes as automobiles,Ã¢â¬ Rogers wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"the public outcry would be overwhelming and drastic steps would be taken to correct the situation. Ã¢â¬ But this happens to many marriages and hardly anyone rises any complain. Divorce is freÃ ¬quent, fewer than half of the marriages that persist could be considered successful, and often couples seem unable or unwilling to correct the situation. The same situation and attitude to marriage we have in Russian, people usually get marry in age of 20 and mostly marriages fail after first three years. When I was getting my bachelor degree, 90% of my classmates were getting married at ages of 20 Ã¢â¬â 21 but 95% of them got divorced in the senior year of College. I am talking about secular world and we may have a different statistics among Christians but the fact is that young people have no clue what marriage is about. There are many reasons for the present instability of marriages, but one of the many causes of failure is built primaÃ ¬rily on sexual attraction, the desire to escape from a difficult home situation, a vague feeling of love, or some equally fleeting motive. Many marriage relationships are too flimsy to survive the pressures, challenges, and storms of daily living. Unprepared for the stresses or for the effort and determination required making marÃ ¬riage work, many people prefer to give up and bail out. That which was meant to be meaningful and fulfilling thus becomes frustrating and personally devastating. I believe that if the society in Russian would pay more attention on premarital counseling in the church and outside then the family institution would have grow stronger and that would lead the country to success because the foundation of any country is the family institution. Premarital counseling seeks to help individuals, couples, and groups of couples to prepare for and build happy, fulfilling, Christ-honoring, and successful marriages. There are many values in premarital counseling if it is done carefully and consistently by the pastor. One of these values is the satisfaction that it brings to him personally. One pastor cannot change this societal attitude by himself, but each one can experience the inner reward of knowing he has done his part to change this preÃ ¬vailing attitude. The values of premarital counseling are first of all to help the couple to approach marriage more realistically because they are aware of only two things that they are in love, and they want to spend their lives together. Another value of premarital counseling is that it affords each partner a better understanding of himself. A value of great importance is the knowledge that each partner gains of the other through the counseling process. The pastor must help the partners to gain a greater understanding of the thought patterns of each other. Another practical value of premarital counseling is that partners can see the value of, and gain experience in the skill of communication. Finally, a great value of premarital counseling is that it helps persons to realistically determine if they are making the right choice regarding marriage. Reasons for premarital guidance Gary Collins outlines seven basic principles of premarital counseling that I found helpful in my context. These are: 1. Unrealistic Expectations That Can Lead to Disillusionment. When they apÃ ¬proach marriage, perhaps most people assume that they have unique relationships. Perhaps these expectations are changing now that marriage failures are so much taken for granted. Often there is impatience, insensitivity, self-centered, attitudes, inadequate skill in relating, and great disappointment and disillusionment when oneÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations for marriage are not met quickly. Premarital counseling lets couples express, discuss, and realistically modify their expectations for marriage. 2. Personal Immaturity That Can Lead to Insensitivity. Most 92% marriages in Russian happened because of pregnancy and this is the normal thing nowadays. It is not surprising that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes and behavior within a marriage differ little from the characteristics that were brought to the relationship. If one or both of the participants are self-centered, hypercritical, impatient, competitive, or striving for statusÃ¢â¬âthat is, immatureÃ¢â¬âbefore marriage, these traits will put a strain on marital stability later. People who are irresponsible before marriage tend to be irresponsible after the wedding. Premarital counseling should seek to uncover and discuss the self-centered tendencies that put strain on a marriage. The couple must be taught how to resolve differences, and they must develop both sensitivity and a willingness to accept and meet each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. This involves giving freely to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mate just as Christ gave to us. 3. Changing Roles That Can Lead to Confusion. Confusion and conflict may follow when a man and woman each come to marriage with unclear roles and vague expectations about their own and each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities. You read "Pastoral Care and Counseling" in category "Essay examples" Differing assumptions and views about who is supposed to do what can lead to tension unless the couple has learned to communicate honestly, not defensively, and in loving way. Premarital counseling provides an opportunity for a couple to begin this type of communication. Together they can learn to discuss their different expectations and decide on areas of responsibility. Such role clarification must not ignore biblical teachings. According to ScripÃ ¬ture, both the Christian husband and wife must be filled with the Spirit: daily confessing sin, giving thanks, and praying for the Holy Spirit to control each of their lives. There also must be an attitude of mutual submission to each other, but the more stringent requirements are laid on the husband. The husband and wife are equally valuable and equally important in the building of a good marriage, but they have different responsibilities. 5. Loosening Sexual Standards That Can Lead to Immorality. Sex before marriage is not new and neither is it rare, even among Christians. But as a result of these more liberal attitudes, dating for many has become a time for exploring each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies and genitals instead of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, feelings, beliefs, values, and expectations. Sexual standards are loosening and premarital sex, even among Christians, appears to be more prevaÃ ¬lent. Nevertheless the Bible still calls this immorality a violation of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s best for our lives. Issues like this should be discussed honestly, faced compassionately, and examined biblically. 6. Previous Experiences That Can Lead to Overconfidence. Books on premarital counseling often assume that most couples are young, inexperienced, and entering their first marriage. This is not always true. Many prospective brides and grooms have been previously married. Some previously married people recognize the need for new adjustments and appreciate the help that can come from a sensitive counselor. More often, it seems, people approaching remarriage resist premarital counseling and assume that it is unnecessary and only for those who have had no prior marital experience. The counselor can challenge unrealistic attitudes, help the couple see potential problems that even previously married people might miss, and guide them to resolve issues that may have been unresolved following the previous marriage. 7. Circumstances That Can Lead to Later Misery. When they come to marriage, some people bring what one counselor calls red-flag situations that need special scrutiny and evaluation. Some of these circumstances were mentioned as pregnant bride, one or both participants on the rebound from a previous marriage or engagement, serious drug involvement, emotional problems or mental instability, serious mental or physical handicaps, no financial security, contrasting cultural backgrounds or religious beliefs, wide gaps in education or age differences, and knowing each other for a very short time. Many marriages do not survive. Premarital counseling should not be viewed as a painful procedure designed to snatch unsuspecting couples from the grips of marital misery. Most premarital counseling is done, not with pathological people, but with relatively healthy indiÃ ¬viduals who can be helped to enhance and enrich a growing relationship. Format It should be obvious that a counselor cannot accomplish all of these purposes in one brief interview. Most writers recommend that there be at least five or six one-hour sessions prior to the wedding. This of course can be demanding. It is easy for time pressures and counselee busyness to combine in convincing the counselor that a briefer period of premarital counseling would suffice. Try to resist that temptation. There is much to be discussed if a marriage is to be built on a solid foundation. The general goals according to Hamilton, include the following: (1) an understandÃ ¬ing of the meaning of marriage within the framework of biblical truth and Christian theology, (2) an understanding of the problems affecting marriage in contemporary culture, and (3) an understanding of the Christian concept of the value of human personality. As the pastor deals with these broad concepts he seeks to expand his counseleesÃ¢â¬â¢ awareness of the importance of marriage in the light of its biblical and historical roots, of the unique pressures being brought upon marriage in our times, and of ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the worth of persons. All of these goals are of vital importance in building a sound philosophy of marriage. The specific goals, according to Hamilton, center in the following areas: (1) an understanding of each partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s role-perception in the forthÃ ¬coming marriage, (2) an understanding of each partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s role-expectation of the other, (3) an understanding of how each partner evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the other, (4) an understanding of the potential strengths and weaknesses of the proposed marriage, and (5) a careful examination of particular problems likely to arise. The underlying, practical goal of all premarital counselÃ ¬ing is twofold: (1) to enable the partners to pre-solve some potential marriage problems before they arise; and (2) to give the partners knowledge of, and experience in, the art of comÃ ¬munication, which is so necessary in the building of a rich and rewarding relationship. The pastor who wishes to do a creditable job of premariÃ ¬tal counseling should think in terms of at least three sessions: (1) one with the woman, (2) one with the man, and (3) one with both. In each of the individual sessions the pastor will be engaging in four main functions: (1) listening, (2) questionÃ ¬ing, (3) analyzing, and (4) teaching. Listening As in other types of counseling, the pastor needs to hear what is, and is not, being said. Only by careful listening can the pastor come to valid insights regarding the counseleeÃ¢â¬â¢s real feelings about his personal relationship with the proposed marriage partner. Questioning Skillful use of questions enables the pasÃ ¬tor to gather the type of data he needs to help persons prepare for marriage. Questioning will center in the two broad areas of facts and feelings. The area of facts will have to do with such aspects as how they met, how long they have known each other, how long they have dated, and when they plan to marry. The questioning should then move to the deeper level of feelings. This area has to do with such matters as the counseleeÃ¢â¬â¢s true feelings about the idea of marriage, the deÃ ¬mands of marriage, his perception of his partner as a marriage mate, and his own feelings regarding his ability to be a suitÃ ¬able marriage partner. The pastor should not hesitate to question his counselees regarding their feelings about every aspect of the marriage relationship including such matters as where they will live and in what kind of dwelling, how many children they want, where they will attend church, whether the wife will be emÃ ¬ployed outside the home (along with how long, how much, and what kind of work), how they will use their leisure time, where they will find their friends and how they will develop social relationships, how each feels about the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s job, and if either plans for further education. He should also exÃ ¬amine their attitudes toward in-laws, money, and sex. As the pastor probes the deeper levels of his parishionersÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings he gains the type and amount of information he needs as he proÃ ¬ceeds to analysis. Analyzing After the data is sorted out and analyzed, the pastor is ready for a joint session (or sessions) with the partners. In most cases there will be some differences in how each partner perceives certain aspects of the future marriage. These are the areas that will need to be given special and careÃ ¬ful attention during the joint session. It is at this time that the two partners will need to be shown the importance of comÃ ¬munication. It will also provide a rich opportunity for them to begin to develop new and better ways of communicating their feelings to each other. Teaching Lastly, the pastor engages in the function of teaching. The amount and type of teaching that is to be done will be determined by what the pastor has discovered in the individual counseling sessions. The broad areas covered in his teaching will usually include the Christian view of marÃ ¬riage, the tatus of marriage in contemporary culture, the responsible use of sex, the basic differences in maleness and femaleness (most feel they understand the opposite sex but do not), and the art of communication. As a part of his teachÃ ¬ing function the pastor should be prepared to recommend and loan helpful books and articles in areas where the partners lack understanding. It is also important for the pastor to point out the value of a medical examinat ion for the prospective bride, if not for both partners. Thorough work in premarital counseling may involve more than three counseling sessions, but that is the minimum. While this is both time-consuming and exhausting, it is less so than marriage counseling. If a pastor does his premarital counseling work well he may be saving himself, or some other pastor or counselor, from involvement in more extensive marÃ ¬riage counseling later on. Of greater significance, of course, is that premarital counseling helps couples to build the kind of relationships that are both solid and satisfying We have high incidences of divorce in the church in Russia particularly among young people because they are often pushed into early marriage by teenage pregnancies. Such people do not have any opportunity for premarital counseling. The church often treat them with disdain and may not be readily open to give them some basic premarital counseling that would help sustain them when they get married. Part II: Marriage Counseling Marriage is not a very stable institution at least in the Western and Eastern worlds. In Russia the average duration of a marriage is only 5 years. More than a million couples are divorced every year. Many who stay together have marriages tolerable but not especially happy. Even though happy marriages like these do exist and are possible, we live in a time when marital unhappiness is more common and where many see divorce as a convenient and ever-present fire escape should marital conflicts get too hot to handle. Marriage, the permanent union created by God, is treated more and more as a temporary arrangement of convenience. Marriage is one of the first topics discussed in the Bible. But what does the Bible say about marital problems and ways to help troubled marÃ ¬riages? Almost nothing! It should be remembered that marital conflict often is a symptom of something deeper, such as selfishness, lack of love, unwillingness to forgive, anger, bitterness, communication problems, anxiety, sexual abuse, drunkenness, feelings of inferiorÃ ¬ity, sin, and a deliberate rejection of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. Each of these can cause marital tension, each can be influenced by husband-wife conflict, and each is discussed in the Bible. The causes of marital problems Some common marital problems as found in Russian culture outline by Collins as follow: 1. Faulty Communication. In the professional literature, this probably is the most commonly mentioned cause of marital discord. Citing James 4:1-3, psychologist Lawrence Crabb notes that communication problems inevitably result when people pursue self-centered goals, but sometimes problems also come because individuals have not learned how to communicate clearly and efficiently. Most of us would agree that occasional miscommunication between spouses is inevitable. When miscommunication is more common than clear communication, however, the marriage begins to have serious problems. Poor communication tends to breed more of the same. Try to remember that communication is a learned interaction. Even when it is not good, people can learn to make it better. 2. Underintegrated or Overintegrated Relationships, Getting close to another person is risky. We open ourselves to criticism and possible rejection when we let another person know us intimately, he become aware of our insecurities, or see our weaknesses. Since most of us have learned the value of fending for ourselves, it is not easy to trust another personÃ¢â¬âeven when that other person is a marriage partner 3 Interpersonal Tension. When two people marry, each comes to the marriage with approximately two or more decades of past experiences and ways of looking at life. Each has perspectives that are not shared by the other and sometimes, even when there is a sincere desire for compromise or synthesis, couples still has diffiÃ ¬culty resolving their differences. What happens if there is unwillingness to change, insensitivity to the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoints, or a refusal to acknowledge the differences? Often there is tension that frequently centers on one of the following issues: Sex: At times most couples have sexual problems. These include lack of accuÃ ¬rate knowledge, unrealistic expectations, fear of not being able to perform adeÃ ¬quately, differences in sexual drive, inhibiting attitudes about sex, and insufficient opportunities for privacy. Roles: We live at a time when traditional male-female roles are being reevalÃ ¬uated. This often leads to conflict over what it means to be a husband or wife. The society gives little guidance because opinions seem to be changing so rapidly. Inflexibility: When a man and woman marry, each brings a unique personality to the marriage. Sometimes these personality differences complement each other and blend into a mutually compatible relationship. Often marriages take on personalities of their own, each of which can have strengths and weak points. There can be difficulties, however, if one or both of the partners is rigid, unwilling to give, or strongly resistant to change. Religion: The Bible warns of problems when a believer and an unbeliever try to live together in marriage. Counselors have observed tensions when a husband and wife differ from each other in their denominational preferences, degree of comÃ ¬mitment to spiritual things, interest in religion, or expectations about the religious education of children. Sometimes these differences create tension in other areas such as choice of friends, views of ethics, whether and to whom charitable donations will be given, or the use of time on Sundays. Religion can be a binding, strengthening force in a marriage, but when a husband and wife have different viewpoints, religion can also be a destructive focus for marital tension. Values: What is really important in life? How should we spend our time and money? What are our goals? These questions concern values. When a couple has similar values, the marriage is often healthy and growing. When values are in conÃ ¬flict, however, the relationship may be one of tension, power struggles, and mutual criticism. Value conflicts are at the heart of many marital problems. Consider, for example, how some of the following value alternatives could create potential for conflict. Functions of the Marriage Counselor The functions of the Marriage Counselor are: To hear the hurts that the counselees are feeling. In many cases these hurts have been intense, of long duration, and unexpressed to a third party. The reason that the counselor needs to hear the hurts is because the counselee feels his or her partner has not truly heard him or her. Attempts to be heard by his mate have been aborted, and this adds to his anxiety and frustration. When he feels that his counselor is get ting his message and is feeling with him, he experiences the catharsis he needs in order to approach his problem more realistically. 2. To clarify problems. Most persons who come for counsel are aware of symptoms but they do not understand what is producing those symptoms. Most people are so confused they do not know what their problem is until they visit a counselor. 3. To help in the understanding of roles. Most couples are confused of their roles. BeÃ ¬cause it is difficult for one to see the gap between his perÃ ¬ception of himself and his behavior, he feels that he is misunderstood if his mate points out this discrepancy to him. When both partners are thus criticizing each other, each feels mistreated and frustrated. . To faÃ ¬cilitate communication. A communication problem happens when partners have unresolved conflict between them. The counselor helps deal with the conflicts then now they have free flow of communication. 5. To encourage change in perception and behavior. It is not enough for the counselor to hear hurts, clarify problems, aid in the understanding of roles, and aid in facilitating communication. He must help moti vate the partners both to think themselves into a new way of behaving and to behave themselves into a new way of thinking. MotiÃ ¬vation is usually achieved, at least to a degree, when feelings have been ventilated, the problem is seen in clearer perspecÃ ¬tive, and communication lines have been opened. Some marital problems in Russia are like an inflamed appendix, capable of killing but relatively simple to remove. Other problems will be of such depth and severity that the pastor will not be able to deal with them. This means that he will need to refer them to a professional counselor, a psychologist or a psychiatrist. The pastor need not feel defeated by his inability to help such persons. If it is any comfort to him, he should be aware that some marital problems lie beyond the skill of even the best of professionals. Therefore, while he may be truly sorry that he is not able to help in some cases, he should not be embarrassed by this inability. Such failures should, however, encourage him to continue his study of counseling so that his knowledge will expand and his skills will increase. Part III: Care and Counseling in Crises Situation A crisis happens all the time in all cultures nobody is exempted from crisis: big or small, reach or poor, educated or uneducated. A crisis is a part of our lives it is usually happen when person cannot solve the problems by himself. This is where pastoral service is required. A personal crisis develops in four stages: (1) the problem causes tension to the person. (2) Failure to respond to this need produce feelings of anxiety, confuÃ ¬sion, and guilt. (3) When this continues unsolved it develops into a crisis situation that may require external help. (4) If the problem is not resolved, the inner stress of unmet needs mounts until it reaches another thresholdÃ¢â¬âthe breaking point. This is full blown crisis. Caplan in his book Principle of Preventive Psychiatry distinguishes two categories of crises Developmental and Accidental: Developmental crises are normal in the sense that they happen as an integral part of all or many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. Among these are birth, weaning, toilet training, the oedipal conflict, going to school, adolescence, leaving home, completing school, entering a vocation, engagement, marriage adjustment (or the adjustment of singlehood), pregnancy, parenthood, the middle-age crisis, loss of parents, menopause, retirement, death of spouse, death of friends, and eventually oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own dying. These stressful experiences are the occasions of crises for an individual to the extent that they pose problems for which her or his previous coping abilities are inadequate. Each developmental stage and crisis is the occasion for a variety of caring and counseling opportunities. Accidental crises can occur at any age, precipitated by unexpected losses of what one regards as essential sources of need satisfaction. Precipitating experiences include all the life events listed on the Holmes-Rahe scale below, loss of status and respect; an accident or surgical operation; mental illness or alcoholism; a physical handicap; an unwanted pregnancy; a natural disaster such as a flood or earthquake; or a massive social calamity such as a war or economic depression. Crises can be triggered by seemingly positive changes such as a job promotion or graduation from college. All these events produce emotionally hazardous situations. Crises happen in people rather than to them, but they tend to occur in high-stress, emotionally hazardous situations. A crisis is more than simply a time of danger, pain, and stress to be endured. It is important for the counselor to see that it is a turning point, a growth opportunity where persons move toward or away from greater personality strength and wholeness. This makes crisis counseling a strategic helping opportunity. Informal Crisis Counseling Much of the counseling done by pastors takes place in informal settings without being called counseling. This is what happen most in my context. Pastors meet a need a attend to it immediately without insisting that the person concerned must book an appointment before seeing him to discuss the issue. Some occurs in the ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s office or home when people drop by for a chat, without an appointment. By allowing the sensitivities and skills of counseling to permeate their many informal and chance encounters, ministers can help many times the number of people they could reach through formal counseling alone. While it is important that pastors should have some private time for themselves and family, it also important to have parishioners know that their pastor ordinarily is available when severe crises strike unexpectedly. As ministers learn to recognize and utilize the pastoral care opportunities potentially present in many interpersonal contacts, this becomes a natural pastoral reflex. They discover frequent opportunities to do informal one-session crisis counseling during the ordinary encounters of parish life. Occasionally these will become formal and multiple-session counseling relationships. Informal counseling is informal in one or more of these ways Ã¢â¬â the setting may be anywhereÃ¢â¬âa street corner, a grocery store, a hospital room, the church lounge, a parishionerÃ¢â¬â¢s office or living room, in meeting, etc. The counseling happens in the context of a relationship not identified as counselingÃ¢â¬âa chance encounter or a pastoral call, perhaps following a meeting or Sunday service. The personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind-set reflects this informal atmosphere. He/she probably thinks of what occurs as Ã¢â¬Å"talking over a problem with the pastorÃ¢â¬ rather than counseling. The structure and sequence of formal counseling interviewsÃ¢â¬âappointments, stated time limits, and an agreed-upon series of sessionsÃ¢â¬âare usually lacking. Such brief informal counseling can be very helpful to some people. Informal crisis counseling opportunities occur frequently during a pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s home and hospital visits. Much of what is done during such calls is general pastoral care. It becomes a counseling issue when the counselee is aware of his /her problem and the pastor shows his willingness to help with the problem. The counselee is able to overcome his/her fear of disclosing the problem to another person with the hope that he/she is going to be helped in such action. Such confidence to disclose the problem does not normally come automatically. It comes with a lot of struggles. Such persons often are receptive to informal counseling long before they enter formal counseling. Some people have great difficulty making a formal appointment for counseling, even when wrestling with very painful problems. They feel that to do so would be to admit failure, which would increase their feelings of low self-esteem and powerlessness. This is why the ability of pastors to go to people, make themselves emotionally available, offer help, and establish informal counseling relationships is a priceless professional asset, which should be used to the full! How can ministers create opportunities, during their pastoral contacts, for care-giving conversations, informal and formal counseling? First, they know or suspect that such and such is in particular need of pastoral careÃ¢â¬âthe bereaved, the sick, the unemployed, the depressed, the hospitalized, the disgruntled, those in psychotherapy, newlyweds, new parents, the recently retired, the handicapped, alcoholics and their families, the lonely, those with disturbed or handicapped children, and those who face painful crises and perplexing decisions. An alert pastor often senses intuitively that a certain family is under extreme pressure. Such Ã¢â¬Å"pastoral care suspectsÃ¢â¬ should go on the Special Help List. By devoting extra pastoral visitation time to these persons, ministers can build strong relationship bridges with them. Such relationship can bring pastoral care and informal counseling help to the troubled, and also make it easier for them to seek formal counseling. The building of relationship bridges with those who are likely to need help but are not yet motivated to seek it, are described by Seward Hiltner as precounseling. The many interpersonal contacts of pastors contribute to this objective if people feel they are warm, nonjudgmental, caring, competent, shockproof, not Ã¢â¬Å"too busy,Ã¢â¬ and humanÃ¢â¬âaware of their own humanity . Clinebell believes that, a pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s sensitivity to the subtle signs of distress is an asset in spotting potential counseling opportunities. Many ministers walk by on the other side of their parishionersÃ¢â¬â¢ Jericho Roads simply because they lack awareness. The pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional radar antennas should be tuned to the wavelength of people in order to pick up subtle cries for help and coded Ã¢â¬Å"maydayÃ¢â¬ signals. Clinebell highlights some basic typical distress signals that can help pastors understand people in need. These are: Embarrassment at the ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s call: A frantic attempt to keep the conversation on the surface, avoiding all depth encounters. Depression: including such symptoms as sleeplessness; loss of interest in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s usual pleasures; anxious agitation or heavy sluggishness; feelings of worthlessness, emptiness/meaninglessness or helplessness; a phony-fixed smile. Veiled antagonism between spouses: sometimes hidden behind saccharine-sweet surface behavior. Emotionally disturbed children: including those with behavior problems, (which often reflect hidden marital unhappiness). Frequent intoxication: particularly at inappropriate times. A radical change in usual behavior: including church attendance. Irrational or frantically compulsive behavior. Guilty avoidance of the pastor. Affiliating with extremist political or religious groups. When such distress signals are identified, pastors should make every effort to be emotionally accessible to the persons and to offer help in a way that respects their right to refuse it. A third way to open up informal and formal counseling opportunities is the judicious use of Ã¢â¬Å"openersÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âquestions or statements designed to interrupt superficial conversation and provide an opening for people to discuss their real feelings and issues if they choose. Here are some samples: Ã¢â¬Å"How are things going for you in this difficult situation? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What youÃ¢â¬â¢re saying feels very heavy. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How are things going with you really? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You seem to be feeling very discouraged (upset, angry, remorseful). Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I get the feeling you have a burden on your mind. Although such openers may startle people initially, they express the pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s concern and by implication, offer help. A well-chosen question, asked with warmth and empathy, can help free people to talk about their burdens. A question about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s spiritual health is as appropriate from a minister as is a question about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical health fro m a family doctor. Conclusion Pastoral Care and Counseling ministry is the most important ministry next to the ministry of preaching of the Gospel. People who are hurting they are not be able to listen the Gospel without a healing balm of their wounds. Only Pastors are caring such methods of healing. The Gospel itself addresses to totality of man: spiritual and body. When one part is addressed to the negligence to the other the total needs of man will not be made. Pastors who are sensitive to the hurts of members of their congregation and unable to address such hurts through the appropriate counseling technique are more likely to be successful in ministry then those who neglect these needs. The course Pastoral Care and Counseling has opened my understanding to these needs in our congregation. I got more focused in this area of ministry. And I wish to pursue it in the future. Bibliography: Benner, David. Strategic Pastoral counseling. Michigan: Baker Book House,1998; Barister C. W . Pastoral care in the church. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1992; Cavanagh, John. Fundamental Pastoral Counseling. Ireland: The mergier press, 1963; Cobb, John. Theology and Pastoral Care. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979; Collins, Gary. Christian Counseling . Dallas: Word Publishing, 1988; Clinebell Haward. Basic Types of Pastoral care and Counseling. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992; Hamilton, James. The ministry of Pastoral Counseling. Michigan: Baker Book House 1975. How to cite Pastoral Care and Counseling, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Abstract This paper will focus on the development of a growth plan for a restaurant that currently faces some issues, but has the potential to develop and expand that is not entirely realized. The strategy will be focused on the improvement of existing product and service. Such methods as surveys, interviews, and observation will be used during the research process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Research Growth Plan: Mirch Masala Inc. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Executive Summary Mirch Masala Inc. is a Dubai-based restaurant that provides its customers with a broad range of Pakistani dishes, and the Halal law is taken into account. The primary purpose of this paper is to develop a strategy that would make Mirch Masala a high growth firm. One of the core aspects that need to be considered is that it currently has an enormous potential to become one of the leading companies in this market, and it is going to be discussed in great detail. It needs to be said that this is a high-risk industry, and it is hard to justify dramatic changes. The methodology for the research will consist of questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Improving an existing product and service is the strategy that is going to be chosen in this particular case, and it will focus on internal aspects of the business (Barringer Ireland, 2010). The biggest problem that is currently present and needs to be addressed is that it is viewed as non-prestigious according to survey results. Reviews on the Internet were also considered, and the results are not positive because some customers are not satisfied with dishes that are offered, and this issue needs to be addressed. One of the most significant aspects that need to be considered is that there was a controversy surrounding one of the restaurants that operate under this brand name, and it has severely damaged the image of the company. A growth plan is necessary in t his case because the enterprise needs to regain the trust of customers and has to deal with other minor issues. It is imperative to diversify the business because it is hard to deal with numerous competitors that appear (Berry, 2015). Some barriers that prevent future development of the company are also present. Employees are also in need of training because some customers are not satisfied with the service, and this fact should be considered during the development of growth strategy.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT Analysis Strengths It needs to be said that the restaurant has numerous advantages. A unique technology that is used during cooking is a significant strong point that should not be disregarded. Professional equipment and tools are also used during the process. Some dishes that are offered are unique and have great taste that is praised by customers. The desi gn of the restaurant is also a strong point and has a significant influence on the experience of the customers. The fact that it offers ethnic food is also a major strength. Weaknesses On the other hand, some tremendous weaknesses are also present. Marketing strategy is not well developed, and the potential that is associated with the brand name is not realized. Also, not enough attention is paid to the development of the business because the owner is afraid to take risks and prefers stability. The current strategy has some glaring weaknesses, and employees do not know what course of actions they should take in particular situations. Some dishes are rather expensive because of the technologies that are used during the process of cooking, and it takes too much time. Another weak point that needs to be addressed is that there are limited opportunities for the introduction of new products and services because of aspects that are related to franchising. Opportunities One of the restaura nts that are located nearby is going to get closed for a month because a repair is necessary, and it is an enormous opportunity that should not be disregarded because it is possible to attract new customers. Restaurant menu may be revised, and new dishes can be introduced to meet the needs of a new target market. The number of beverages that are offered at the moment is rather small, and it is an excellent opportunity that needs to be taken advantage of because other businesses in this area are mainly focused on food. Another opportunity that needs to be considered is that healthy food is getting extremely popular in this region, and this is one of the major trends in the industry.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Research Growth Plan: Mirch Masala Inc. specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats Nearby restaurants should be viewed as significant threats because they have a better reputation among clients and are de veloping at a rapid rate. Another issue that needs to be discussed is that some of them offer similar dishes. A new restaurant that is currently under construction is a major threat because the owner has tremendous experience in this business. Any disagreement that occurs with any supplier is also a significant risk because it is not easy to find new ones in this area. Currently, Mirch Masala is too dependent on tourists at the moment, and it is extremely likely that significant complication may occur in case any economic crisis occurs. PESTLE Analysis Political Political stability is incredibly important in this case because a significant percentage of customers are foreign visitors. Terrorist activities in the area are not likely to happen, but this factor always needs to be considered. Another major factor that the business may have to deal with is regulations by the government, and it has a tremendous influence in this region. Economic Inflation is a significant aspect that has to be taken into consideration because it may significantly affect the ability of customers to dine out, and they may prefer to stay at home in some cases. Prices most likely will be increased as well, and this issue should be addressed. Changes in exchange rates are also likely to have an impact on the business. Social Consumer opinions are of utmost importance for this business because most individuals are worried about their health, and it reflects on their choices and preferences. It is necessary to consider the fact that some of the reviews that are posted on the Internet are negative, and it may have a huge influence on the decision-making process of the customers. Population growth is another factor that is worth considering. It needs to be said that a vast number of expatriates is present in this area, and it may have a significant influence on the industry. Social criticism is another issue that needs to be avoided because the reputation of the company is of utmost importan ce and it may lead to complications with franchising. Lifestyle changes should also be taken into consideration. Technological It needs to be said that this business does not require many technologies in most cases. However, the demand in the market for modern techniques and tools has increased over the last few years.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The introduction of new technologies in the industry may cause significant problems because this restaurant does not pay attention to trends. Technological awareness is a major factor that has influence on the overall success of the company, and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stance on this subject needs to be reviewed. Legal Changes to employment laws may be significant because it is not an easy task to find trained professionals in this area. It is necessary to make sure that the workplace environment is safe to prevent any legal complications that may occur. It is also imperative to ensure that the products that are used during preparation of dishes are of highest quality to guarantee safety and well-being of customers and protect the business from any lawsuits. Internal policies are also quite important, and significant changes may be necessary in this case because numerous aspects are not explicitly listed or explained. Environmental Recycling is a factor that needs to be noted because m ost customers are worried about this issue. It may be necessary to limit the consumption of energy because it is quite significant at the moment. The introduction of water saving technologies is another aspect that is worth noting because the usage of water is perceived as an issue. Climate changes also should be considered, and it is imperative to take necessary measures that would limit their impact on the company. Industry Analysis The restaurant industry in the country is simply enormous and has been growing at an incredibly fast rate over the last few years. Changes in the lifestyle of the population were significant, and the number of customers has increased dramatically. The demand for such products is noteworthy, and it can be viewed as an excellent opportunity for the company to expand. It needs to be said that the industry is incredibly fragmented at the moment, but this company has managed to retain a significant number of customers. The enterprises that operate in this m arket are extremely conservative and are not ready to make any drastic changes to their strategies, and this is one of the key points that need to be taken advantage of, and experience of companies in other countries may be viewed as an example. One of the most significant trends in the industry that should be discussed is that the share of fast food restaurants has significantly reduced, and customers give their preference to places that provide dishes of much higher quality. It is also paramount to note that the sales are expected to increase by approximately 8 percent each year. It is a significant number that should not be disregarded because the company has all the necessary resources to become a high growth enterprise. The number of tourists also increases each year, and it is viewed as a significant aspect because the industry is extremely dependent on foreign visitors, and it is paramount to establish relationships with local customers in case some factors affect the number of foreign visitors. It needs to be said that several competitors that operate in this market are incredibly profitable, and it is necessary to ensure that a broad range of unique services and products are developed to satisfy the needs of customers. Company Description Mirch Masala is an enterprise that was founded in 2011. It mainly focuses on casual customers and offers a broad range of Pakistani and Indian dishes. The major point that must be noted is that the firm operates under a promise that all the products and services are Halal. The restaurant is located in an excellent area that often attracts tourists. However, it needs to be said that the company currently faces several issues. The fact that this restaurant was opened recently is significant because it is still possible to make major changes that would help to address the issue of growth (Brenes, 2011). It needs to be said that the owner is incredibly experienced in this business, and most likely will be able to take fu ll advantage of the funds that are provided. Market Analysis The number of customers is going to be drastically increased when the product is improved, and it will be possible to expand target market. It is a significant aspect that needs to be considered because the restaurant will have to deal with new competitors, and it is extremely necessary to make sure that needs of all customers are taken into account (Kuratko, 2007). Also, it is imperative to note that promotions that are going to be developed will be focused on families. It is an enormous target market, and current competitors do not pay attention to this fact, and this needs to be one of the core factors of the overall strategy. Loyal customers also should be rewarded, because this restaurant started to attract much more native citizens rather recently, and some of them are frequent visitors. The attitude of consumers also needs to be taken into account. It has been observed that most individuals prefer to dine out at sev eral places because they want to taste different food, and it is paramount to note that tremendous opportunities are associated with this fact. Analysis of the survey results indicates that ten percents of visitors are not satisfied with the service, and they think that it is need of improvement. It should be said that an increase in the quality may attract an enormous number of high-income individuals is a significant factor that is of utmost importance for this group of customers. The most important aspect that needs to be reconsidered is the current menu, because sometimes it is not the best option to make all the dishes available at once, and it can be quite beneficial to address this problem. Customer satisfaction is of utmost importance for this restaurant, and development of questionnaires should be considered because it will help to evaluate the issues that are currently present, and need to be resolved (Brenes, 2011). It is also necessary to introduce diversification proces ses because some competitors offer products and services that are extremely similar (Berry, 2015). The firm should focus on families are view them as primary customers because it is a huge opportunity that can be utilized to gain a significant advantage. Marketing Plan Marketing strategy also needs to change, and it should focus on aspects that are associated with increased quality of the products that are offered. It is imperative to make sure that a significant amount of resources is devoted to marketing because currently it is one of the weakest points of the company. It is extremely necessary to keep track of latest trends in the industry to get ahead of competitors. One of the techniques that may be currently used is online marketing (Doyle, 2009). Social media has been getting increasingly popular among the population, and it is paramount to take advantage of this fact. A Facebook page will be used to post articles about dishes that are offered in this restaurant, and customer s will be able to state their opinions. The introduction of restaurant point of sale software is also going to be essential because it is a known fact that it dramatically increases overall productivity in most cases. The data that will be collected is going to be extremely useful because managers will be able to see what dishes are popular among clients in a comprehensive manner. The information that is stored may be analyzed to evaluate any possible correlations that may be used to expand the business. Also, it is imperative to understand that tourists make a significant percentage of customers. The fact that Mirch Masala is a known franchise is a major advantage that should be focused on, but full potential is not realized yet (Barringer Ireland, 2010). It is imperative that the system is already established, but it needs to be said that it is necessary to review some of the agreements to make sure that the company meets the needs of this particular market. Furthermore, it is ne cessary to invest in the advertisement on foreign websites that are frequently visited to ensure that this brand name is more recognizable by foreign visitors. Another aspect that needs to be addressed is that other companies in this sector do not offer any promotions most of the time, and Mirch Masala should take advantage of this fact, and develop a program that is aimed at loyal customers. The price of the products is going to increase slightly, but it should not be viewed as a disadvantage because a significant number of high-income customers are going to be attracted. Operations Plan One of the core aspects that need to be considered is that it is paramount to increase the overall quality of the product that is offered to get ahead of competitors (Barringer Ireland, 2010). It is not an easy task to achieve and maintain growth, but some techniques can be used to avoid common mistakes. First of all, it is paramount to make sure that standards are enforced because it is evident t hat the quality of service varies, and it affects the experience of customers (Kuratko, 2007). It needs to be said that this approach is likely to limit possible innovations, but it is not necessary in this industry, and the company is relatively small at the moment. Staff selection is one of the primary issues that need to be addressed because it is paramount to assess qualification levels of workers (Haksever Render, 2013). Training needs analysis should be conducted to evaluate weak points that should be focused on, and it is necessary to make sure that workers meet the requirements of the company. It is paramount to take appropriate measures to ensure that documents and confidential information are not disclosed. Employees need to understand this aspect because it may hurt the image of the company (Baron, 2012). The location of the restaurant is outstanding, and connections with local distributors are well-developed. However, better lighting may be necessary to attract customer s. It needs to be said that the facilities that have been acquired are in a great state, and there is no need for improvement. It is paramount to note that modern equipment needs to be purchased to increase the overall speed of production, and it also will be required to improve the quality of the product. Webcam monitoring is another aspect that should be taken into account because it is necessary to guarantee that the food that is cooked is safe for customers (Haksever Render, 2013). It is a significant aspect that should not be disregarded because it is evident that employees work better in an environment when everything is under control, and having a better control of the cooking process will be possible. The introduction of timers is also an efficient method that needs to be implemented because it increases the skills and competency of workers. It may be quite expensive, but it is a necessary measure that should be taken because satisfaction of clients is of utmost importance. The fact that the bigger number of dishes is going to be produced in the same amount of time is imperative because it will significantly reduce the cost of production in the long run. Overall, modern technologies should be utilized to their full potential to improve current products and services, and this is an excellent opportunity to gain a competitive edge. Conclusion In conclusion, it is extremely likely that Mirch Masala will be able to become a high growth company if all the recommendations that are listed in this growth plan are considered. Most attention should be paid to the quality of the products that are offered, and the biggest amount of resources should be devoted to this issue. References Baron, R. (2012). Entrepreneurship: an evidence-based guide. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Barringer, B., Ireland, R. (2006). Entrepreneurship: successfully launching a new venture. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Berry, C. H. (2015). Corporate Growth and Diversification. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press Brenes, E. R. (2011). Understanding entrepreneurial family businesses in uncertain environments. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Doyle, P. (2009). Value-based marketing: marketing strategies for corporate growth and shareholder value. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. Haksever, C., Render, B. (2013). Service management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press. Kuratko, D. F. (2007). Corporate Entrepreneurship. Norwell, MA: Now Publishers. This essay on Research Growth Plan: Mirch Masala Inc. was written and submitted by user Daisy Doyle to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
TQM Research Paper Introduction The past two decades have witnessed the rise and fall of countless short-lived fads. Some have attracted a flurry of book, articles, and seminars; others have been completely discredited. Businesses have realized that there is a need to restructure their business practices and become more customer-focused. All recent business approaches and techniques have generally aimed at improving performance, increasing profits, gaining market share, and most importantly satisfying the customer who has become more educated and more demanding than ever. In the last two decades two organizational development models have dominated the business world for a considerable period of time namely Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Process Reengineering (BPR). Statement of Objective This paper aims to shed a novel light on the two most recent and prominent management approaches, namely TQM and BPR. In an attempt to examine the interaction between radical BPR and incremental TQM with respect to change management, I shall briefly discuss the two constructs and contemplate the roots and basic tenets that underlie each. BPR has been referred to in the literature as the successor of TQM and has been treated as an equal. I shall treat the similarities and common grounds among the two, as well as the differences between them. Next, I shall touch upon the weaknesses and highlights that distinguish each, and then move on to construct an integrated model in an attempt to reconciliate the two opposing camps. In this model, BPR cannot withstand, but be an integrated part of the more comprehensive TQM effort, which is the broader platform for organizational change. As such, BPR is rendered as a technique to be employed under the more exhaustive TQM approach. I shall support my presentation by recent books and articles that have dealt with the issue, in addition to examples and case studies from the literature that have implemented change programs based on TQM and BPR principals. This research paper gains significance, as the debate is more heated than ever concerning the survival, decline, or assimilation of the two strategies. Total Quality Management Over the past 20 years, quality has been hailed as the key factor for success. However, the organizational world has been increasingly moving away from the traditional quality concept, as a function of inspection, control, audit, and review, as these are all now seen as non-value adding. Some of TQMs basic concepts came out of Bell Telephones labs in the early 1920s. Refined and developed by Deming, Juran, Crosby, and then Ishikawa and Taguchi, and later on others TQM calls for continually improving quality by using statistical measures to track, both, problems and the results of efforts to fix these problems. Edwards Deming, the guru of the quality approach, describes quality as having no meaning other than that defined by customer needs and desires. A satisfied customer is not enough, says Deming in one of his early lectures of the 1950s in Japan. Business is built on the loyal customer, one who comes back and brings a friend. A more recent definition of TQM offered by Almaraz in 1994 maintains that: TQM refers to a management process directed at establishing organized continuous improvement activities, involving everyone in an organization in a totally integrated effort toward improving performance at every level. The TQM philosophy provides the overall concepts that foster continuous improvement in an organization. This philosophy stresses a systematic, integrated, consistent, organization-wide perspective involving everyone and everything. It focuses primarily on the total satisfaction for both, internal and external customer, within a management environment that seeks continuous improvement of all systems and processes. The TQM philosophy emphasizes the use of al people, usually in multifunctional teams, to bring about improvement from within the organization. It stresses optimal life cycle cost and uses measurement within a disciplined methodology to target improvements. The prevention of defects and emphasis on quality in design are key elements of the philosophy. The elimination of losses and reduction of variability are important aims. Further, it advocates the development of relationships between all parties: employee, supplier, and customer. TQM provides a flexible, responsive managem ent approach able to act and react to all the forces of todays and tomorrows economic world. It focuses the resources of an organization on identifying and acting on the internal and external forces that will influence an organizations operations. TQM gears an organization toward continually improving quality, increasing productivity, and reducing costs to ease economic pressures. It focuses on total customer satisfaction through highest product and service quality at lowest life cycle costs to compete in the global environment. TQM stresses constant training and education, downsizing, and service value. A further understanding of Total Quality Management comes from the terms that make up the name. Total means total comprehensive participation, i.e., the involvement of everyone and everything in the organization in a continuous improvement effort. Quality is total customer satisfaction, whether internal or external customers. Management is the leadership of an organization that creates and maintains the TQM environment. The basis of quality in TQM is a process-based structure consistent with the Deming PDCA Cycle: Plan, Do, Check, Act. Although it has been recently suggested that TQM is Ã ¡outÃ ¢ or that it was essentially a 1980s phenomenon, the interest in TQM has scarcely subsided . Today such diverse practices are being done under the name of TQM that it seems to have lost its boundaries. Some consider TQM as a management attempt at cultural transformation and treat it as synonymous with cultural change and excellence. (12) Others consider it a method of cutting losses and, among other things, reducing waste and scrape while boosting customer satisfaction. There is no one agreed upon definition for TQM. Total Quality Management is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that are the foundation of a continuously improving organization. The terminology differs from one organization to another; however, there are four essential elements of all definitions of TQM and these are: continual improvement, people orientation, quantitative methods, and, last but not least, customer focus. TQM integrates fundam ental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under the disciplined approach focused on continuous improvement. TQM has been especially remarkable for its long tenure atop the heap and has been labeled King of the Hill. Business Process Reengineering Business reengineering is the concept of changing the fundamental way work is done in order to achieve radical performance improvement in speed, cost, and quality. The term BPR first appeared in the Information Technology (IT) field and was then used in the broader context of organizational change processes to refer to the use of modern information technology to radically redesign business processes. BPR will shatter assumptions and simplify processes utilizing IT as an enabler. According to its originators, Hammer and Champy, reengineering refers to the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. BPR can be better understood by analyzing the terms of its original definition. Fundamental rethinking is the reconsideration of the basic questions of why do they [organizations] do what they do? And why do they do it the way they do? Radical redesign means uprooting the old and creating new structures and processes. As such reengineering is about reinventing the business and not improving or modifying it. Dramatic refers to the achievement of quantum leaps rather than incremental improvements in BPR application, which demand blowing up of the old and replacing it with something new. Hammer and Champy define the fourth term, business process, as a collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer. BPR is, above all, an improvement philosophy. It aims to achieve step improvements in performance by redesigning the critical processes through which an organization operates, maximizing their value added content and minimizing everything else. This approach can be applied to an individual process or to the whole organization.(the essence of BPR:20) Povey explains that the basic premise of BPR, the rapid redesign of critical core processes of an organization, generates breakthrough improvements in the performance and result in a competitive advantage in the global market place. Hammer and Champy speak of three types of organization that undertake reengineering.. The first is the desperate type, in which crisis management has taken control in an organization whose costs keep piling up, products and services keep falling behind, and nothing seems to be going right. The second type is the organization that is not facing any immediate threat, but would want to improve its status before b eing caught up in the storm. The third type includes organizations that are ambitious and aggressive. They want to enhance their performance and get a better leverage over their competitors. Reengineering requires a shift to process orientation, teamwork, IT, and customer focus. Some good BPR tools include process mapping, value analysis, and half-life principle. The reengineering effort is characterized by focusing n process mapping, product and process elimination, process simplification and integration, process improvement, teamwork, and the active leadership and participation of top management in change. Recent field studies have provided evidence that reengineering, is applicable, without any variations to the concept, to all types of organizations, be they manufacturing, service, non-profit, private, or public. I. TQM BPR: Common Grounds and Similarities Before trying to point out the differences between TQM and BPR, it is more useful to find the similarities. These points represent a wide viewpoint and are meant to highlight the broad commonalties between the two approaches, not to suggest that BPR and TQM are similar in their application methodologies. It is worth to note that while BPR and TQM share many of the same dimensions and goals, the two are not mutually exclusive and need to be done jointly. A. Quality Improvement and Process focus: Both, TQM and BPR, are quality movements that seek to enhance an organizations capabilities for the future. Quality goals concentrate on the reduction of variation in processes and the application of effective measurement systems. Customers play a central role in being the determining factor of the standards of quality. In todays world, quality is in the eyes of the beholder, i.e., the customer. It is the customers perception that counts. BPR has much in common with TQM in hs respect. The definition of the process to be reengineering is in part a technical matter, concerning judgements about where the problem actually lies in the light of available information. Within the organization, this customer-defined quality is translated into process-focus. At the heart of TQM is the idea that improvement comes from addressing the processes, which deliver the defective or inadequate end-results, rather than on concentrating on the results themselves. As for BPR, the process focus is an intrin sic paradigm of the reengineering strategy. Critical success factors are used to identify the organizations core processes, which will undergo redesign. Conformance quality (meeting customer requirements) and perceived quality (exceeding customer requirements) improve profitability. Reducing waste and increasing productivity are natural by-products of a systematic process of quality improvement. As such, both TQM and BPR aim at improving an organizations operations to enhance its ability in delivering quality products and services with the ultimate aim of augmenting productivity, increasing profitability, and gaining market share. B. Top Management Support: Setting the stage for quality improvement involves everything that the business does from becoming aware of the need for significant change to establishing a commitment to actually follow through. The desire to actually deliver quality involves senior managements initiation and continued commitment, constituting the basic drive behind the whole process. It involves goal setting, barrier reduction, training, and leadership. Setting the stage means that one must create an environment in which business improvement is encouraged and nourished. A vision of change for quality must accompany such efforts and be dispersed through out the organization. As management establishes the vision of what it wants to accomplish and where it wants to go, it must put in place support systems to help employees understand and implement the forthcoming change. To ensure positive results, steering performance must be consistent with the vision. Without executive sponsorship, the quest for quality, whether in TQM or BPR, is a joke. Leadership is the most important ingredient for launching and sustaining a quality improvement process. Leaders of firms need to establish clear, result-oriented goals and communicate their expectations. Management has the total responsibility for effective management of its quality campaign. Top management must take part in a companys quality operation and to guide its quality systems. Executive commitment is not only about management, but also about leadership. Leaders establish unity of purpose, direction, and create an environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organizations benefit. The role of management can be sensed in every step along the way. It provides leadership, develops the vision, establishes objectives, pursues strategy, establishes and monitors planning, monitors implementation, provides policy, conveys commitment, assures resources, eliminates barrier s, participates, appoints responsibilities, assures customer satisfaction, presents information and the list goes on and on. Senior managements role is to lead the change, not to manage it. It is responsible for shaking the barriers, i.e. removing road-blocks set up within the organization by people opposing change. Senior management must provide inspirational vision of the ultimate goal to be achieved C. Serious investment in the human resource: Empowerment, Teamwork, Training For any quality campaign to be successful, you need top-down active leadership that facilitates real change and a bottom-up quality management improvement process in order to achieve real sustainable bottom line results. Managements role is to invest in the campaign by motivating and involving others through broadening the ownership base of the idea. Only when employees develop a sense of ownership, will they embark upon it with true enthusiasm and motivation. Ownership must ultimately rest with the line operations in terms of engagement and accountability, for it is this human element of the organization that will ultimately deliver the quality and present the organizations image to the final customer. Delivery of quality implies a commitment and dedication, not only by senior management, but also by every single person within the organization, and sometimes outside of it. Harnessing the skills and enthusiasm of everyone is conditioned on providing employees with the adequate skills, tools, and authority to adapt to and adopt their new roles. TQM and BPR rely for their success on an active subject with interpretive powers. Empowerment and other associated ideas such a participative management, delegation of authority, and decentralization are based on placing responsibility for making decisions in the hands of workers. As one CEO put it: we are only as good as our employees and our employees are as good as we allow them to be. Despite the risks associated, such concepts have proved to boost job satisfaction, increase motivation, reduce absenteeism, lower turnover, and improve the work environment. Empowerment is not optional, rather a pre-requisite and can be considered one of the basic pillars of both technique. Hammer and Champy assert that empowerment is an unavoidable consequence of the reengineering project. Nevertheless, such concepts are under u sed during application phase of BPR, resulting in various people related problems. From the concept of empowerment follows the concept of group-work or teamwork. Teamwork is a technique where by individual members of a team work together to achieve a common goal. Teams are an essential structural ingredient of both approaches. Teams are needed to meet the challenges of the environment. The increased value placed on empowering employees as a means of improving productivity while simultaneously improving employee satisfaction leads to increased reliance on teams. Employees need to work together to meet new challenges. The theme is central to both TQM and BPR, as it aids communication, improves cooperation, reduces internal competition and duplication of effort, and maximizes talents of employees on a project. Teams are a vital management tool given that collaborative decision making allows for creativity. The need for fewer layers of management and more information for better communication and more efficiency will arise. Decreasing hierarchy will also remove organiza tional blockages to critical change. Hence, employee empowerment will facilitate and quicken the pace of work. Jack Welch, CEO of General Electric and leader of its rebirth in the 1980s and the 1990s, has become the spokesperson for organizational change. He described the critical importance of cross-functional teams and project teams in the new flattened architecture of GE with fewer layers of management. Cross-functional teams are essential to implement the new managerial role to yield increased value to customers. Teams go hand in hand with managements assumptions of its new role and flattened organizational culture. As such, reorienting an organization towards quality requires teamwork, both horizontally and vertically, given the fact that teamwork can be very powerful as weaknesses and strengths of individuals are balanced, brainstorming enhanced, and skills and knowledge concentrated. It is vital to build profound knowledge in teams about the business, customers, associates, b est practices, technology, and other factors related to the organization. As such, training is a must. Learning must precede thinking and a solid foundation for creative thinking need be established through benchmarking. In his book, The Circle of Innovation, Tom Peters speaks of the eraser mania. The problem with moving on is not about learning new things, but about forgetting the old ones. Organizations are so intent on pushing forward with the new that they forget to help employees let go of the old, thus, overlooking the personal losses of employees involves with change. They often hold on, resisting change. The reasons for this resistance include perceived loss of identity, value and worth in the eyes of the organization, disorientation, and the risk of failure. Continually training and educating employees is necessary due to the pace of change in todays world, not to mention a TQM or BPR undertaking. Providing training is imperative, especially in the area of team member effectiveness that focuses on skills of active listening, resource sharing, conflict resolution, negotiation, and interpersonal skills including how to handle contributions, input, and feedback from others about the work. At th e same time, upper level management may require training in self-directed team activities to understand what their employees are doing. While an organization may have had in place an extensive training program prior to TQM or BPR, there is no guarantee that the program in place will focus on the skills and abilities needed after the change has occurred. Training should focus on both the technical abilities in the new roles as well as interpersonal skills. Training on teamwork, trust, and decision-making must be emphasized to aid employees in adapting to their new roles. Enhanced individual skills and attributes will better enable teams to be more flexible and responsive to change. Successful change attempts are heavily dependent on training the human resource. An organization stands and falls with the people in it. It is therefore imperative to understand and anticipate individuals expectations, emotions and behavior. This includes managing for fear and resistance to change. Communication is crucial factor not only to an organizations employees, but also to all its stakeholders, including owners, external customers, suppliers, press, Ãâ¢etc. These aspect are frequently neglected in implementation of TQM, and more so in BPR. While these are intrinsic aspects of the Total Quality Approach, they are only marginal where BPR is concerned. In comparison with TQM, BPR under-rates the Ã ¡humanÃ ¢ dimension. C. Metrics and Measurement: The selection and application of relevant performance metrics is critical to achieving success. Performance metrics must fit the business objectives and must be customer focused and driven. Todays quality standards are defined by the customers whose needs, desires, and expectations vary considerably. As such, a company should use the same measures as their customers in order to create a common ground for evaluating performance. Results should be directly measurable in terms of customer satisfaction, process cost, process quality, process speed, and ultimately in increased shareholder value and capital creation. II. TQM vs. BPR: Strategy Differences A. Radical vs. Incremental The major substantial difference between TQM and BPR, it has been argued, is the principle of radicalization. This Ã ¡radicalÃ ¢ element of BPR change is a striking departure from the incremental change of TQM projects. Process reengineering approaches process improvement in a drastic manner wiping out the old and putting in place new processes. While process management is based on the concept of continuous, evolutionary improvement, process reengineering searches for breakthrough improvements and revolutionary methods for doing work. To encourage a radical organizational rethink, the starting point for reengineering is a blank sheet of paper. The reengineering effort tears apart the current process and systematically rebuilds it. Continuous improvement of TQM responds to growing customer needs and expectations and ensures a dynamics evolution of the quality management systems in a slow, but sure mode. The pace of reengineering is ambitious, in comparison with TQMs conventional cha nge programs. B. Innovation vs. Improvement: The other major difference between TQM and BPR has to do with the level of change. A number of authors view organizational improvement activities as points on a continuum ranging from incremental improvement to radical change. Due to its focus on existing processes, TQM will rarely lead to radical innovation; rather it brings about change in a snowball effect so that the end result shows significant departure from the initial state of affairs; but still change and improvement are no more than incremental. It is within this context that the debate arises as to whether or not BPR, as a vehicle of radical change and innovation, is becoming a substitute for the incremental improvement of TQM. The logic behind it is that as the external environment is becoming more volatile and a more radical approach to change is needed. The clean slate approach in implementing BPR is in itself a thrust for creative thinking. Separating those responsible for scrutinizing the process from those charged wi th identifying the role of IT guards against any biases or hindrances created by current system limitations, processes, people, or activities. The above argument leads to another theoretical debate concerning implementation and the relative merits of clean slate verses a dirty slate. While, in theory, the clean slate allows projects to be modeled without contamination from the status quo, the dirty slate approach is regarded as more pragmatic. Michael Hammer advocated beginning the reengineering process with a clean slate ignoring past business approaches and working toward a complete redesign of the entire organization. While this is the ideal approach, Hammer concludes that it may not be feasible in some organizations where limited resources demand that reengineering proceed one division at a time, beginning with the area of the organization that is most amenable to change; Davenport explains that while restricting possibilities for process innovation, and although more difficult in design, the dirty slate approach is more realistic, financially viable, and easier to implement. One thing is for sure, BPR, most definitely, does not mean tinkering with what already exists or making incremental changes that leave basic structures intact. C. Risk and Pay-back Period: The pace of reengineering is ambitious, in comparison with TQMs conventional change programs. As such, high risk due to radical change is a natural consequence of BPR. Reengineering programs promise significant benefits higher margins, lower expenses, and improved productivity, to name a few. But these efficiencies are seldom gained without trade-offs. The sweeping changes brought about by reengineering cannot fail to influence a companys risk profile. Risk managers need to devise training programs that will help minimize the impact of change. Reengineering without training and education is unthinkable. Risk management is an inherent part of reengineering. Companies must assess the risks associated with changing business processes. TQM, in contrast to BPR, if of a much lesser risk. It involves neither the radical nor the dramatic changes that are an intrinsic part of BPR; rather TQM addresses the organization from a cultural standpoint that works on changing attitudes and behaviors over a long time period. A short-term focus in TQM weakens the organization and rarely ensures that the ultimate goal is achieved and sustained. It frustrates the people involved because they quickly realize that it takes time to develop the skills, attitudes, and knowledge required to make a difference to customers and to the bottom line. A long term focus, however, signals strong unwavering commitment and eventually wins over the people who must make it all happen. A long-term focus and a sense of urgency are entirely compatible attitudes in TQM and, in fact, are the right ones. BPR, on the other hand, is a one strike or one shot thing. Its relative short time frame results in quick outcomes, which renders it even more risky. TQMs incremental improvement-oriented changes are a long-term investment. Miraculous results will not appear overnight, especially because TQM is addressing a culture issue. Changing attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs is the most difficult and lengthy process and organization can undergo. D. Focus: Strategy and Customer TQM programs have highlighted the role of processes in delivering quality. In his book Out of Crisis, Deming stated, I should estimate that in my experience, most troubles and most possibilities for improvement add up to proportions like 94% that belong to the system and 6% to special causes. Peppard and Rowland explain that the systemÃ ¢ here refers to the process, i.e., the way things are done, and not who does them. However, TQM programs have placed greater emphasis on the people and techniques aspects rather than on the process elements. TQMs process focus is towards control and measurement so that variation could be eliminated and quality raised. Implementations of TQM programs, in addition, have often reinforced functional boundaries, overlaying the concept of the internal customer as a means of improving the process interfaces between departments. The clear focus of BPR is processes and minimizing the non-value added content in them. In his book Beyond Reengineering, Michael Hammer speaks of the shift to process centered organizations and explained that such a shift is about eliminating non-value adding work and establishing higher performance. Becoming process oriented is all about being customer outcome oriented. BPR seeks to generate ideal processes either from a clean slate design, or from systematic redesign of existing processes. The target of the organizational change is the business process, and not the organizational culture, as is the case with TQM. The effectiveness of the change effort can, thus, be assessed with respect to the performance of those processes, not with respect to changes in attitudes, values, and beliefs. As to the customer focus, Peppard and Rowland assert that while BPRs primary concern is the external customer, while TQM has introduced more than one type of customer s through the concept of the internal customer. III. Advantages and Disadvantages While most researchers and practitioners agree that failures of TQM and BPR, in most cases, are mainly due to misapplications, this does not abolish theory pitfalls. A review of the literature reveals the major strengths and weaknesses of TQM and BPR. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages and bring about improvements, as well as handicaps. BPR rates highly in terms of innovation and IT utilization, while TQM provides the best practices for continuous improvement and customer satisfaction. A. BPR In addition to its dramatic quantum leaps, innovative opportunities, and short time frame, BPR possesses the privilege of exploiting Information Technology capabilities. However, its revolutionary nature can be very stressful on the human component of the organization and financially exhaustive. 1. Information Technology: BPR was the first large-scale systematic application of Information Technology (IT) to management. Information technology has become a key enabler for organizational change and is conceived as a mandatory component of all reengineering efforts. It is viewed as a one of the tools for achieving business process redesign. Information technology can provide help in managing large amounts if information efficiently. It can also provide significant improvements in operational performance by short-circuiting supply chains and industry value systems, and it can allow companies to re-consider their business scope. On an operational level, technological solutions can reduce manual work by creating electronic workflow and automating clerical routine tasks. IT also plays an important role in supporting knowledge workers by delivering information timely and accurately, and by facilitating communication and networking. 2. BPR and Downsizing BPR calls for making major changes to a businesss fundamental operations, with cost reduction as the primary goal. Because change associated with BPR often calls for reducing the number of workers, it has been closely associated with concepts like downsizing and rightsizing. The terms have been so confused, that many criticize BPR as resulting in corporate anorexia and hollow-shell-corporations the terms referring to organizations that have viewed BPR as a short-term way to boost profit by gutting a companys work force that it has lost its essential functions by such trimming. During implementation, BPR often translates into wholesale staff cuts. However, while downsizing may be an often-cited by-product of BPR projects, it definitely does not summarize the reengineering effort. Hammer did tackle this issue and has explained that downsizing and restructuring mean doing less with less, whereas reengineering means doing more with less. It is worth noting that, cost cutting approaches is a means for improving efficiency, but does not necessarily elevate effectiveness. 3. Neglecting the Human element The threats and risks that BPR brings along are scary to the people of the organization. Obliteration of existing processes as advocated by Hammer in his very first article on BPR is not only impractical, but also potentially disastrous and doomed to failure in the absence of a culture of change that soothes employees. Reengineering can impose a cultural upheaval on a company. In the absence of a clear vision, fear and turf protection become the main drivers of behavior as people worry that their skills become obsolete or will not be utilized in the new organization, thus loosing their jobs. Most cited BPR downfalls have been due to a failure of adequately addressing human resource questions and a general lack of management understanding and commitment to the reengineering effort. Such failures have been categorized into four elements: failure to translate the future vision of the company into appropriate cultural and behavioral expectations that can be communicated to all employees; the absence of systematic means to benchmark current practices against those required to achieve the vision; the lack of a focused development process to help individuals close the gaps between their current levels and those required by the reengineering vision; and the inattention to the supporting HR systems that must maintain the vision. Reengineering neglects to deal adequately with the people of the organization who ultimately determine whether reengineering works or not. The horrific effects of typical reengineering efforts on the morale and motivation of the survivors are often overlooked. Initiatives often fail because focus has been concentrated on the processes and ignored the people who make them work. Common long-term losses include moral problems B. TQM Total Quality Management has also been claimed to have its own pros and cons. 1. Functional Culture TQM possesses the asset of an effective culture that emphasizes the role of the customer, whether internal or external. It is well known that corporate culture can have a significant impact on an organizations economic performance. The culture that has resulted in an organization that has undertaken a quality campaign is greatly conducive to corporate goals and strategies. The customer, as well as process focus, the prevention versus inspection policies, fact-based decision making, the highlight on feedback, and most importantly, the care bestowed upon employees install an open responsive culture. The weight placed on continuous improvement through continual learning is significant. Today, organizations have become information-processing networks capable of enhancing their positions only through learning. Learning is a major core value for an organization seeking excellence, as it has become synonymous with quality. A total quality management campaign entails a complete involvement o f the entire organization in a management led attempt to achieve success. In such a culture, the employee is king, as he/she is viewed as the ultimate pronouncer of quality. Employees are trained and empowered to take responsible decisions and are considered as collaborates in organizational work. It is such a culture that distinguishes flourishing organizations and allows them to acquire the competitive advantage necessary in order to compete. 2. Lack of Strategic Impact TQM has been criticized on many accounts. Some have argued that the element of continuous improvement mentality inhibits learning. Others have condemned it on the grounds of lacking innovation and radical capability, stating that Ã £incremental change isnt enough for many companies today. They dont need to change what is; they need to create what isnt. Yet, others have denounced it as deficient in IT focus and utilization. However, the most captious criticism of TQM has been its lack of strategic impact. VI. Reconciliation and Integration It is apparent that that there are major problems within the foundations of each individual approach. However, there is also a clear opportunity to unite them to fill each others gaps. In an attempt to re-conciliate the two approaches, two theories have erupted. The first integrates BPR under TQM by using the former as a tool or a subset of the latter. Leach considers TQM more likely to lead to success and concludes that BPR is more of a designed tool for TQM, but it is not a substitute. The agreed upon view in this camp is that it is more constructive to incorporate BPR as a valuable tool within the framework of TQM. As Macdonald put it, TQM provides the essential cultural framework to enable BPR. The second camp, on the other hand, entertains the idea of applying TQM after BPR as the latter builds the platform and prepares the stage for the former. TQM can be used to continually improve the company after BPR has radically changed it. Many supporters of this view have summarized it with the cliche revolutionize and then evolutionize. But even so, BPR cannot stand on its own without follow up. This follow up is incorporated in the continuous improvement offered by TQM. While both approaches offer valid arguments, there seems no need to adopt an either/or position. Practitioners can create an integrated model where both incremental and quantum improvements are possible within a continuous improvement environment. In such a model, the building blocks are an integration of the best practices of the two methods building on the strengths of both and eliminating most of their individual weaknesses. TQMs stable culture, people participation, and evolutionary nature can be used to eradicate or neutralize the stress and fear caused by BPRs revolutionary nature. The changes commensurate with BPR usually scare employees and de-motivate them. For true success in todays environment, management needs to consider employee participation, for which TQM creates the proper cultural milieu for change. BPR, on the other hand, provides the quick strike and innovative capabilities, in addition to the best practices of IT. TQMs main contribution would be a continuous change and improvement methodology, without which the solutions that BPR offers will bear little fruit. Both kinds of change can and should be pursued, even though their requirements are different. A. Common Weaknesses: Nevertheless, the two approaches fail to address some common weaknesses, which, if left un-addressed, become weaknesses of the integrated model, rendering it insufficient and ineffective. 1. Lack of strategic impact: Not conducting strategic business planning to set the future direction of the company prior to starting the TQM initiative has caused major failures. The inherent lack of strategic integrity embodied within TQM is considered to be one of its main flaws. Similarly, in most cases BPR is undertaken to achieve medium-term cost and time saving rather than longer term strategic benefits. A greater focus on learning at the expense of the preoccupation with cost and time could increase the strategic impact of many BPR applications. 2. Lack of `people focus: The survey conducted by the authors (1998) suggested that TQM offers more people focus than BPR. However, the impact of change on people, and the way organizations are dealing with their people, is still considered a problem within both. The failure of many recent large-scale efforts at corporate change can be traced directly to employee resistance, lack of support, lack of enthusiasm and generally lack of the right culture to support the framework. Managing business productivity has essentially become synonymous with managing change effectively. To this end, companies must not only determine what to do and how to do it they, but also need to be concerned with how employees will react to it. It is becoming increasingly clear that the engine for organizational development is the people who do the work. Without altering human knowledge, skill, and behavior changes in technology, processes, and structures is unlikely to yield long-term benefits. Human development has been viewed as a more suitable alternative to `traditional organizational development in a strategy for bringing about dramatic performance improvements. The new work pattern is flexible working hours, knowledge workers, working from home, etc. So while these patterns emerge, organizations must change the way they deal with their people to yield maximum benefits. The success of an organization lies more in its intellectual capabilities than in physical assets. The cap acity to manage human intellect and to convert it into useful products and services is fast becoming the executive skill of the age. Thus, the model to be developed will be people oriented where high performance can be achieved only through people. B. The Proposed Model for Performance Excellence: Organizations are unique and each must find its path to success by continuously learning and customizing best practices. Thus, this model shall be set up in such a way so as to present a broad framework of generic ideas applicable to all organizations. The model can be considered a recipe; a mixture of best practices from BPR and TQM. However, it is not suggested that such a model will be a silver bullet. Its effectiveness depends on thoroughly understanding the business and the people in it. The aim of the model is to help organizations achieve performance excellence by ensuring a healthy balance between stability and continuous change. Stability comes from a bedrock of culture and values shared by organizational people, supported by a stable strategy, and systems that change only in a `creation or reorientation effort. Continuous change comes from continuous learning, and both aspects rely on fully committed and educated people. Hence, the objectives of the model will be to focus o n delighting the customer, to emphasize organizational people as the main competitive advantage and to develop a commitment to continuous learning and improvement. The model proposes turning organizational attention from cost-cutting and staff reduction to employee well-being by proposing an equal emphasis on the three main pillars of organization development, i.e. process, people, and information technology. The `process and `IT aspects, however, are continuously changing subject to daily improvements, and can easily be copied by competitors. Thus, the only source of competitive advantage is the organizations people (96.7% of the respondents agreed that having trained, motivated and well-led organizational people would result in performance excellence). According to John Jr. Welch, CEO of General Electric, the pace of the 90s will make the 80s look like a picnic a walk in the park. Competition will be relentless. The bar of excellence in everything we do will be raised everyday. Successful organizations in the next century will work on the edge of chaos where they must be spontaneous, adaptive, and alive. This, in turn, suggests the need for human and system flexibility and continuous learning within an organization held together by consistency of purpose, through a clear shared vision and open communication. Processes and people surround, and work for, the customer, and are held together by a clear set of organizational values and goals. As such, the main building blocks of the model are as follows: 1. Customer obsession: Past attempts to achieve and retain competitive advantage have largely looked internally within the organization for improvement. However, more so in the future, a major source for competitive advantage will come from more outward orientation towards customers and competition will focus on superior customer value delivery. The customer who should enjoy all the attention is the end user, as opposed to internal customers, suggested by TQM. 2. Vision and values: is he substance that binds the organization together. This includes the strategic planning and management capability, and outstanding leadership. The model proposes integrating the latest techniques of strategic management and thinking within the planning, implementation, and assessment stages. It is also suggested that the main competitive advantage for which organizations must aim is creating a `self-renewal learning culture, with the main competitive weapon being its people. The function of strategic planning in the new management model is to align all the efforts of the organization to customer satisfaction, quality, and operational performance goals. Companies use their strategic planning processes to drive the whole improvement process. 3. Business process excellence: Process excellence combines the incremental improvements of TQM and the more revolutionary steps associated with BPR. The major enabler for the coming century will be IT. Potentials of IT cannot be left unrealized by an organization aiming to survive in the future. However, businesses must creatively integrate IT with human expertise to meet customer needs. 4. People: Organizational people development should be the focal point as the source of future success. Workforce development is a top priority because it is the leverage of an association. The model aims to set out best practices in a culture of participative management, team structure, reward, training and development, recruitment, motivation, commitment, communication and knowledge management. TQM is based on a set of philosophies that emphasize continuous improvement in processes to increase customer satisfaction. To accomplish this objective, TQM requires flexibility and cross-training, cross-functional team problem solving, employee empowerment and ownership of the process. These are also essential to reengineering. For managers and employees ignorant of TQM and its requirements, a jump into the reengineering bandwagon may spin out of control. Reengineering is certainly risky, but it should be a calculated risk. Professionals experienced with TQM possess the skills necessary to organize and plan the changes designed to increase customer satisfaction, and are, thus, better prepared to utilize those skills on a large scale. In the external environment, for any company, change has become the only constant. Technology changes, information change, competition changes; everything changes and the organization itself need to change. In the midst of this flux rises the need for another constant to counter the effect of change, and that would be a culture of change: a culture that adapts the organization to new trends, introduces innovations, fosters creativity, and above all prepares its human element to the turbulence of change paving the way and soothing along the way. An Example: BTNI, a semi-autonomous unit subsidiary of British Telecommunications plc. is regarded as having a leading edge in managing quality and change. The company is an example of an organization that believed reengineering in a crisis situation is inappropriate as crisis in itself promotes fear, confusion, and panic, none of which is conducive to focused BPR. As such, BTNI undertook a number of change strategies before embarking upon BPR, namely BS 5750 / ISO 9000 accreditation, total quality, and finally process redesign. Senior management views incremental change brought about by TQM as greatly valuable, but on its own is not enough. They note that TQM has introduced some surface changes to behavior, while underlying processes, which maintain sub-optimal performance, remained untouched. Sometimes shots of radical change that can only be brought by BPR are also necessary. BTNI also notes that upon embarking upon the BPR project, teams made great use of already documented end-to-end proces ses as part of the TQM efforts. The reengineering implementation teams had to take risks in pursuit of excellence, relying on change management skills and techniques acquired from the TQM experience. (7) VII. Conclusion: TQM and BPR have arguably been so influential due to the amorphous and comprehensive nature of their philosophies. All things considered, TQM, as well as BPR, are applicable to all business sectors, encompassing all aspects of the business and touching upon all corners of an organization without any constrictions. Neither approach guarantees success. It is not a case of follow the rules in the book and youll hit the jackpot. It all depends on organizational intelligence and ability to adapt either approach to its own size, form, products, and management. This research paper has presented an argument for integrating BPR and TQM. The individual strengths and weaknesses of each have been shown to complement one another. From the evidence presented, it can be concluded that the way forward for organizational development is an integrated model, one that builds on the best practices of BPR and TQM and adds strategic planning and a stronger focus on people. Although processes and Ã ¡ITÃ ¢ (the main focal areas in TQM and BPR, respectively) are crucial components for success, they are the easiest to perfect in an organization, and can be easily replicated by competitors, thus, providing little competitive advantage. People and knowledge management are perceived to be the main sources for competitive advantage in the future.